Vayikra

  • Как и зачем нужно истребить Амалека?

    В книге Шемот есть такой пасук - וַיֹּ֨אמֶר היְ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃ - "И сказал Г-сподь Моше: Напиши это как память в книге [(что Амалек начал войну с Израилем перед всеми другими народами), и положи это в уши Иехошуа [который приведет народ на землю Израиля, чтобы дать Амалеку должное наказание], потому что я желаю стереть память об Амалеке из-под небес."

    Так же написано в Книге Ваикра 25:17 - זָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ - "Помните что Амалек сделал вам по пути, когда вы покинули Египет".

    И в Ваикра 25:18 - אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחַרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים׃ - "как, не имея страха Божьего, он внезапно встретил тебя в дороге, когда ты был голоден и утомлен, и уничтожил всех отставших в тылу."

    Мудрецы объясняют, что числовое значение имени Амалека совпадает с числовым значением слова "сафек" которое означает "сомнение". В этой атаке Амалек не имел никакой выгоды - они прошли огромное расстояние и не шли за богатством и завоёвывать земли. Они увидели как весь мир изменил своё мнение об народе Израиле - о бывших рабах, и как все начали о нём отзываться хорошо увидев как Г-сподь своей мощной рукой вывел целый народ в количестве трёх миллионов людей в пустыню.

    Они не хотели допустить чтобы бывших рабов увидели в новом облике, и пожелали унизить их в глазах других народов - дав понять что этот народ как все и не имеет высокого статуса даже после всех чудес которые народ испытал при выходе из Египта. Они напали убив всех тех кто были вне защиты, всех тех кто были сзади, всех утомленных жаждой и голодных. Они смогли внести сомнение в сердца других народов а также в сердце самого народа Израиля в служение Вс-вышнему.

    Это вероломное действие побудило Вс-вышнего дать указ народу Израиля выискивать и истреблять Амалека во веки веков. И сейчас спустя много столетий когда многие народы смешались и поменяли свои места жительства мы не знаем кто есть кто и найти прямых потомков Амалека становится не осуществимой задачей.

    Но мне кажется не только это имел в виду Г-сподь когда давал этот указ.

    Наблюдали ли вы ситуацию спора между людьми?

    Не умея или не хотя овладеть собой, человек в споре начинает выискивать пути свести счёты - опозорить, оклеветать и нанести как можно больше ущерба своему противнику - что он и делает - внося сомнение о нём в сердца окружающим. Но говорит Раби Леви Ицхак из Бердичева в своей книге Кедушат Леви: то чувство которое побуждает человека на всё это и есть тот Амалек который находится в каждом человеке и о котором есть заповедь из Торы - истребление Амалека под небесами. То чувство разрушить кому-то жизнь, доход, семью и всё что у того и есть тот самый Амалек внутри человека который живёт глубоко внутри и часто поднимает свою голову.

    В Шемот 21:29 говорится: וְאִ֡ם שׁוֹר֩ נַגָּ֨ח ה֜וּא מִתְּמֹ֣ל שִׁלְשֹׁ֗ם וְהוּעַ֤ד בִּבְעָלָיו֙ וְלֹ֣א יִשְׁמְרֶ֔נּוּ וְהֵמִ֥ית אִ֖ישׁ א֣וֹ אִשָּׁ֑ה הַשּׁוֹר֙ יִסָּקֵ֔ל וְגַם־בְּעָלָ֖יו יוּמָֽת׃ - "Если бык имеет привычку бодать, и его хозяин был предупреждён, но он не следил за ним, и он убивает мужчину или женщину - быка надо закидать камнями, а хозяина казнить."

    К чему такое суровое наказание - ведь это бык убил человека а не хозяин? А потому что зная и понимая натуру своего быка что он бодает и были пострадавшие в прошлом, хозяин быка обязан был получше смотреть за своим быком, держать его на привязи и не спускать с него глаз.

    Так же ведёт себя Амалек внутри нас в порыве ярости - унижая, пуская слухи и внося сомнение в сердца окружающих о своём противнике и делая всё это забыв про страх и существование Б-га. И если этот человек знает свои таланты и на что он способен, и знает что есть пострадавшие в прошлом, то он обязан держать своего Амалека или быка в кулаке, на привязи и под полным контролем, в худшем случае он в ответе за последствия действий своего быка.

    Сказано в Шемот 17:16 - וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּֽי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַהי בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר׃ - И он сказал: Потому что рука Б-жья поднята чтобы поклясться троном Б-га: «Б-г воюет с Амалеком из поколения в поколение».

    Имя Б-жье и его трон не будет целыми до тех пор пока имя Амалека не стерто. Он будет сражаться с Амалеком пока он не будет полностью стёрт во всех поколениях.

    Поэтому Вс-вышний заповедовал нам истребить Амалека под небесами - внутри себя - внутри каждого из нас. Поместить и держать своего быка в стойле и на крепкой привязи, под полным контролем, не давая ему бодать других и не разрушая всё вокруг - вот это и есть исполнение заповеди о памяти и истреблении Амалека в наши дни.

    Шмуэль Катанов

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  • How & Why to destroy the Amalek in our times?

    In the Book of Shemot 17:14 it says - וַיֹּ֨אמֶר היְ אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֗ה כְּתֹ֨ב זֹ֤את זִכָּרוֹן֙ בַּסֵּ֔פֶר וְשִׂ֖ים בְּאָזְנֵ֣י יְהוֹשֻׁ֑עַ כִּֽי־מָחֹ֤ה אֶמְחֶה֙ אֶת־זֵ֣כֶר עֲמָלֵ֔ק מִתַּ֖חַת הַשָּׁמָֽיִם׃ - "Then the L-rd said to Moses, “Inscribe this in a document as a reminder, and read it aloud to Joshua: I will utterly blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven!”

    Also, it says in the Sefer Vayikra 25:17-18 - זָכ֕וֹר אֵ֛ת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂ֥ה לְךָ֖ עֲמָלֵ֑ק בַּדֶּ֖רֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶ֥ם מִמִּצְרָֽיִם׃ - Remember what Amalek did to you on your journey after you left Egypt—"

    אֲשֶׁ֨ר קָֽרְךָ֜ בַּדֶּ֗רֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּ֤ב בְּךָ֙ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִ֣ים אַֽחַרֶ֔יךָ וְאַתָּ֖ה עָיֵ֣ף וְיָגֵ֑עַ וְלֹ֥א יָרֵ֖א אֱלֹהִֽים׃ - "how, with NO fear of G-d, he surprised you on the march, when you were famished and weary, and cut down all the stragglers in your rear."

    Our Sages tells us that the numerical value of the word Amalek is the same with the word "safek" which means "doubt". In this attack that the nation of Amalek has carried out - there are was nothing that they personally gained - they have traveled a great distance to catch up with the nation of Israel and there was no land for them to capture.

    The only motivation they had is the following: they have seen how the whole world changed their opinion about the nation of Israel - the people that were slaves a while back, they have heard how people were saying good things about the nation and how G-d has taken the nation of Israel, millions of people out from the land of Egypt into the desert.

    They did not want to allow these people to be seen in a new light and wanted to humiliate them in front of other nations - thus letting everyone know that this nation has no high status or in any way special, even after all the miracles that were done for them at the time when they left Egypt. They attacked - killing all those who were out of protection from under the Clouds of Glory, all those who were behind, all those that were weary, thirsty and hungry.

    Thus they were able to bring doubt into the hearts of other nations as well as into the hearts of the people of Israel themselves and in their servitude to Hashem.

    This lowly act prompted G-d to make a decree to the people of Israel to seek out and destroy Amalek for years to come. And now, after many centuries when many nations have intermarried and changed their places of residence, we don’t know who is who and finding the direct descendants of Amalek becomes an impossible task.

    But it seems to me that it is not the only meaning of the above verses that G-d meant when he made this decree. Maybe the following can bring some more insight as well.

    Rabbi Levi Yitzhak from Berdichev in his book Kedushat Levi says the following: the feeling that moves one to sin is that Amalek who lives inside of us and about which there is a commandment from the Torah - to destroy Amalek under the heaven.

    Let me explain, have you ever wanted to do a certain mitzvah but there's something inside of you that has stopped you from doing it? Has one ever wanted to say or believe in slander or gossip, accuse and inflict damage to someone, and there's that lingering feeling that urged him to do it and he feels almost powerless and pushed to it while seeing nothing wrong in his actions at that moment? How about any other sin as written in our holy books - this is the Amalek inside of us that is there to make us fall.

    The safek - the doubt that HaShem exists and is not watching and is not here, and you can do and say pretty much anything, and get away with it. Whether to do or not to do, this is the doubt or the Amalek that lives inside of us. One thing for sure, the nation of Amalek has succeeded in - is instilling this doubt into the midst of our nation and into our own selves.

    The doubt and "giving in" to the temptation and carrying out the sin is that Amalek that succeeds time and time again. And it seems like there's nothing we can do about this. But life is a constant battle and maybe if we understand what we have to lose or gain, maybe then it would be possible to win.

    In the Shemot 21:29 says: "וְאִם שׁוֹר נַגָּח הוּא מִתְּמֹל שִׁלְשֹׁם וְהוּעַד בִּבְעָלָיו וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ וְהֵמִית אִישׁ אוֹ אִשָּׁה הַשּׁוֹר יִסָּקֵל וְגַם־בְּעָלָיו יוּמָת׃ - If, however, that ox has been in the habit of goring, and its owner, though warned, has failed to guard it, and it kills a man or a woman — the ox shall be stoned and its owner, too, shall be put to death."

    Why such a severe punishment to the owner of the bull? The owner did not kill the person, the bull did. Because knowing and understanding the nature of his bull - that he gores and there are were victims injured in the past, the owner of the bull had to watch his bull better - keep him on a leash, tied and never let him wander alone on the streets.

    The same way Amalek behaves inside of us while in the midst of the negative emotion - he may be humiliating, spreading rumors and bringing doubts into the hearts of others about his victim while doing all of this and forgetting about the fear and existence of G-d.

    And if that person that does it all, knows and understands of what he is capable of, and knows that there have been victims in the past, then he is obligated to keep his Amalek or his bull on a leash, tied and under complete control - otherwise, he is responsible for the consequences of his bull’s actions.

    But on a personal level and as a nation we have way too much to lose when we follow our inner Amalek.

    In the Second book of Shmuel 16 5-13 it tell us a story: "As King David was approaching Bahurim, a member of Saul’s clan—a man named Shimei son of Gera—came out from there, hurling insults as he came.

    He threw stones at David and all King David’s courtiers, while all the troops and all the warriors were at his right and his left.

    Abishai son of Zeruiah said to the king, 'Why let that person abuse my lord the king? Let me go over and cut off his head!'

    But the king said, 'What has this to do with you, you sons of Zeruiah? He is abusing [me] only because the L-RD told him to abuse David; and who is to say, ‘Why did You do that?’

    David said further to Abishai and all the courtiers, “If my son, my own issue, seeks to kill me, how much more the Benjaminite! Let him go on hurling abuse, for the L-RD has told him to. Perhaps the L-RD will look upon my punishment and recompense me for the abuse [Shimei] has uttered today.

    David and his men continued on their way, while Shimei walked alongside on the slope of the hill, insulting him as he walked, and throwing stones at him and flinging dirt."

    The Masechet Megillah 13A tells us that Mordechai HaTzadik in the story of Purim came from Shimi ben Gera.

    King David was able to hold himself and his emotions in total control, he allowed himself to be humiliated in front of everyone present, thus meriting Mordechay haTzadik to be born into this world, who has saved the whole nation from the hands of Haman haRasha in times of Purim.

    As it is said in Shemot 17:16 - וַיֹּ֗אמֶר כִּֽי־יָד֙ עַל־כֵּ֣ס יָ֔הּ מִלְחָמָ֥ה לַהי בַּֽעֲמָלֵ֑ק מִדֹּ֖ר דֹּֽר׃ - And he said: For the hand of the L-rd is raised to swear by the throne of the L-rd: "The L-rd is at war with Amalek from generation to generation."

    G-d's name will not be complete and His throne will not be complete until the name of Amalek is blotted out. He will fight Amalek until he is totally wiped out for generations.

    Therefore, the Almighty has commanded us to destroy Amalek from under the heaven - the one that is within ourselves - within each one of us. To place and keep your bull in a stall and on a strong leash, under the complete control, not letting him gore others and destroying everything around them.

    To control your negative emotions that can bring destruction into people's lives by going on a full-scale war - spreading slander, lashon hara, destroying personalities and instilling doubts about opponents into the hearts of people around them.

    And for once hold yourself in-check and under complete control as King David did and maybe, just maybe we will merit another soul of likes of Mordechay haTzadik or Moshiach himself to be born in our generation that will save the entire nation from this exile. And by doing this it will be the fulfillment of the commandment of destroying the memory of Amalek under the Heaven in our times.

    Shmuel Katanov

     

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